(www.selectstone.com/glossary.htm. By John Miles.)
Stone and Masonry Terms
B C D
E F G
H I J
K L M
N O P
S T U
X Y Z
wooden or metal rack constructed in the shape of an
"A" on which large stone slabs are shipped and stored.
away so as to leave parts in relief.
flat non-reflective surface finish. Recommended
for exterior use.
Refers to the wearing qualities of stone for floors,
stair treads and similar uses subjected to abrasion
by foot traffic.
property of a surface by which it resists being worn
away as a result of friction.
of moisture absorption by weight. The process by which
a liquid is taken into (soaked up by) another substance
and held there. The weight of water a brick unit absorbs,
when immersed in either cold or boiling water for a
stated length of time, expressed as a percentage of
weight of the dry unit.
wall or pier that receives the thrust of an arch; a
solid stone springer at the lowest point of an arch,
vault or beam.
used to speed the setting of mortar, epoxy, and polyester
water-based repellents which form a film. The acrylic
resins come from the polymerization of derivatives of
acrylic acids, including esters of acrylic acid, methacrylic
acid, acrylonitrite, and their copolymers. Acrylics
resins vary from hard brittle solids, to fibrous elastomeric
structures to viscous liquids, depending on the monomer
used and the method of polymerization.
resulting from the polymerization of derivatives of
acrylic acids including esters of acrylic acid, methacrylic
acid, acrylonitrite, and their copolymers. They can
be carried in a water or solvent solution and they are
of a coating composition which are deposited following
co-reaction or reaction with the substrate. Active solids
are usually measured as a weight percent of the total.
veneer secured and supported by adhesion of an approved
bonding material over an approved backing.
additives included in the mixing batch for concrete
manufacture or applied to the surface during the curing
or setting process of the concrete, which variously
accelerate or retard the curing time, provide coloring,
waterproofing, tearing, special aggregate finishes fillers,
quartz-based stone containing a variety of colored aggregates
and pumice in a quartz matrix. Quarried in Mexico and
available in several colors.
variety or quartz allowing colored bands or other markings
(clouded, moss-like, etc…).
product fabricated to look like quarried stone. Usually
composed of stone chips or fragments embedded in a matrix
of mortar or thermosetting resins.
that are added to mortar or grout at time of mixing
to impart special properties to the mortar or grout;
quantities of loose fragments of rock or mineral.
grained, translucent variety of gypsum, generally white
in color. May be cut and carved easily with a knife
or saw. The term is often incorrectly applied to fine-grained
form; the center of most liturgical places of worship.
railing across the chancel, or in front of the altar.
involving change of, or addition to, an existing building.
Complex salt or soap of aluminum and stearic acid. Used
as a flattering and antisettling agent for pigments
in paint and varnish, water repellents and cement additives.
Temperature of the surrounding environment.
One of the two pulpits or raised stands, usually stone,
used in Christian churches.
Metal device for securing dimensional stone to a structure
or back-up walls.
The means by which slabs are attached to a self-supporting
for stone work:
Flat Stone: Strap,
cramps, dovetails, dowel strap, and dowel and two
corrugated wall ties and dovetail anchors.
cramp, rod anchor, eyebolt and dowel, flat hook, wall
dowel, dowel and wire toggle bolts.
A structural steel angle; used for lintels to support
masonry over openings, such as doors, windows or fireplaces.
which has given up all its previously held water
dark-colored igneous rock consisting mostly or entirely
of calcic plagioclase.
peak of a pyramidal or conical form.
stone of gable, spire, or pediment.
piece under a projecting stone top, stool, etc…
white mineral found in calcium carbonate.
of arches with their supports; also, a passageway, one
side of which is a range of arches supporting a roof.
stone structure resting on supports at both extremities
used to sustain weight on bridge or roof on an open
space. Or, a curved compression structural member, spanning
openings or recesses; also built flat.
concealed arch carrying the backing of a wall where
facing is carried by a lintel.
arch having horizontal or nearly horizontal upper
and lower surfaces.
Also called a flat or straight arch.
with maximum span of six feet and a rise to span with
a ratio less
than or equal to 0.15. Typically forms are jack arch,
segmental arch, or multi-centered arch.
arch built over a lintel, flat arch, or smaller arch
to divert loads,thus
relieving the lower member from excessive loading.
Also known as a discharging or safety arch.
arch, usually a low rise arch of brick, used for supporting
a fireplace hearth.
in the design of buildings and having technical knowledge
of their construction.
and science of designing and constructing buildings
adapted to their purposes, one which is beauty.
Member of an entablature resting on the capitals of
columns and supporting the frieze.
masonry in compression, using arch and vault.
included within specific boundaries.
metamorphic rock composed mainly of clay or shale, and
aluminum silicate minerals. Similar to slate in appearance
and splitting properties, but usually much harder.
ARKOSIC SANDSTONE, FELDSPATHIC SANDSTONE: A
quartz-based containing 10% or more of elastic grains
solvents comprised of organic compounds which contain
an unsaturated ring of carbon atoms, including benzene,
naphthalene and their derivatives.
man-made product that may look like natural quarried
marble, sometimes composed of thermosetting resins as
a matrix and fillers.
substitute for dimension stone made by casting selected
aggregates and cement in molds.
corner, or edge produced by the meeting of two surfaces;
the edge of external angle. A natural or applied line
on the stone from which all the leveling and plumbing
faced surface generally square or rectangle having sawed
or dressed beds and joints. Or, rectangular blocks having
sawed planed, or rock-faced surface, contrasted with
cut blocks which are accurately sized and surface tooled.
May be laid in courses.
set to form continuous horizontal joints.
set to form continuous vertical joints.
set with stones of varying length and height so that
nor horizontal joints are continuous.
roofed entrance court of a building.
finish produced by means of masonry axe tool.
line in plan or elevation dividing symmetrical parts.
concealed arch carrying the back lug of a wall where
the exterior facing is carried by a lintel.
masonry built behind a facing or between two faces.
Or, filling over the extrados of an arch; brickwork
in spaces between structural timbers, sometimes called
of a veneer wall behind the exterior facing which is
designed to resist load.
flexible and compressible type of closed cell-foam polyethlene,
butyl rubber, or open cell and closed cell polyurethane,
rounded at surface to contact sealant. It is installed
at the bottom or rear of joint and often described as
a "filler strip".
part of masonry or other type wall behind the stone
veneer, die, or facing.
pillar or column supporting a rail usually used in balustrades.
or parapet consisting of a handrail and balusters, sometimes
on a base member and sometimes interrupted by piers.
of timber or stone (may be a single block) on which
stone is worked.
textured (aphanitic) igneous rock relatively high in
iron and magnesia minerals and relatively low in silica,
generally dark gray to black, and feldspathic. A general
term in contradistinction to felsite, a light colored
feldspathic and highly siliceous rock or similar texture
and origin. The colors of basalts are very dark green
to black and often sold as granites, but unlike granites,
basalt contains little or no quartz or feldspars.
course of a stone wall, or the vertical first member
above grade of a finished floor. Or, in a classical
column, it is the part between the shaft and pedestal
squared block terminating a baseboard at the opening.
lowest course, or footing of a wall or pier.
member at the junction of wall and floor. See base.
pattern in paving.
or carving with slight projection from the background.
of brick, usually half the size or smaller.
surface finish produced with parallel tool marks.
or sloping masonry back in successive courses; the opposite
slope from bottom to top of the face of a wall. Or,
a term used by bricklayers and carpenters to signify
a wall, piece of timber, or other materials, which do
not stand upright; the opposite of corbel.
mason’s chisel several inches wide used to dress stone
to a striated surface.
of a sealant in a joint after application.
joint with a half-round or half spherical section.
cut into the back of dimension stone to allow entry
of a supporting angle or clip.
slot cut into the back of dimension stone to allow entry
of a supporting angle or clip.
or bottom of a joint, natural bedsurface of stone parallel
to its stratification.
and marbles a layer or sheet of the rock mass that is
horizontal, commonly curved and lenticular as developed
by fractures. Sometimes applied also to the surface
of parting between the sheets. Or, in stratified rocks
the unit layer formed by sedimentation; of variable
thickness and commonly tilted or distorted by subsequent
deformation; generally develops a rock cleavage, parting
or jointing along the planes of stratification.
horizontal joint between stones, usually filled with
mortar, lead, or sealant.
plane of sedimentary stone in the position of its original
continuous horizontal course of flat stones place in
line marking a division in the wall plane. Sometimes
called band course, string course, or sill course.
formed in quarry by removal of stone following bed joints.
Or, a long seat of cubic stone.
datum point from which differences in level are reckoned.
of earth, such as the piled-up earth against a stone
that one surface or line makes with another, when they
are not at right angles; a sloped surface contiguous
with a vertical or horizontal surface.
A black, brown, or dark-green mica, a magnesium iron
BEAK MOLDING: A
drip mold found notably in the cap of the pilaster of
the Doric order.
colored igneous rocks defined by geologists as basalt,
diabase, gabbro, diorite, and anorthosite, quarried
as building stone, building facings, and specialty purposes
and identified as Black Granite when sold.
action caused by corrosive metals, oil-based putties,
mastics, caulking or sealing compounds.
of different generic raw materials to form a water repellent.
to the proper positioning of adjacent veneer panels,
or floor slabs, or tiles by their predominant color
to achieve an overall uniform pattern.
members of wall furring or the like to afford fastening
and rigidity for the veneer. Or, to fill a space within
a shipping truck or container with fastened wood to
prevent movement of stone.
argillaceous metamorphic sandstone of characteristic
blue, gray and buff colors quarried in the states of
New York and Pennsylvania (historically quarried near
the Hudson River, Appalachian Plateau).
defect which appears as a milky opalescence as a clear
coating or paint film dries.
stone post or guard. Or, a stone guard protecting a
wall corner from damage by encroaching traffic.
various parts of masonry wall by lapping units on over
another or by connecting with metal ties. Or, adhesion
between mortar or grout and masonry units or reinforcement.
Or, patterns formed by exposed faces of units.
bond in which every sixth course is a header course
the intervening courses are stretcher courses.
groups of brick laid at right angles to those
cross bond: A
bond consisting of alternate courses of stretchers
with each stretcher centered on alternate headers
in the courses above
and below. Also called English bond.
bond consisting of courses made up of alternate stretchers
with each header centered on a stretcher above and
constructed without a regular pattern.
bond in which units in successive courses are placed
they overlap. Placing vertical mortar joints centered
over the unit below
is called a center or half bond, while lapping one-third
of the way is
called a third bond and one-fourth of the way is called
a quarter bond. Some
building codes require at least a quarter bond to
qualify as running bond.
in tape form. Used to ensure adhesion on both sides
of the joint in joints of limited depth, and where a
backing rod or other joint filler is not practical.
adhesive material used between the back of the stone
tile or paver and the prepared surface.
Used in varying percentages to anchor or bond the stone
veneer to the backing material. Bond stones are generally
cut to twice the bed thickness of the material being
used. Or, stones projecting laterally into the backup
wall used to tie the wall together.
slabs cut and assembled so that one slab will match
the other in the horizontal direction, or in a vertical
direction, but not both. Slabs must have alternate faces
finished in sequence as they are layered in the quarry
A flat stone used as an edging material, a border stone
is generally used to retain the field of the terrace
a flat stone used as a edging material. A border stone
is generally used to retain the field of a terrace,
platform, or floor.
stone placed in a wall and projecting from it, that
is left to be sculptured at a later time. Or, coursed
stone ashlar with roughly dressed or projecting face.
arrange a course of stone so that its vertical joints
are not in line with those of the course just below.
of moisture in gaseous form through stone. Also called
"vapor transmission." To a greater or lesser extent
all stone has this process occur.
or limestone in which angular fragments are imbedded
in a matrix of the same of another composition.
Any marble composed of angular fragments.
saw that powers a circular diamond blade or blades which
travel on a metal rail (bridge), and rests on supports.
It is used to fabricate dimension stone slabs and cubic
stone into square and rectangular pieces. Some models
can be used to fabricate profiles and miters.
To drill or cut out material left between closely spaced
drill holes. Also, a mason’s sharp pointed chisel for
dressing stone and a type of chisel used for working
shaped stones, generally ½" to 2 ½" thick. See flagstone..
A sandstone of characteristic brown or reddish-brown
color that is due to a prominent amount of iron oxide
as interstitial material. Or, a term applied to ferruginous
dark brown and reddish brown askosic sandstones extensively
used for construction in the U.S. during the 19th
century Stone for New York City’s noted "brownstone
fronts" came from the Connecticut Valley in Massachusetts,
southeastern Pennsylvania, and New Jersey.
Obtained by brushing the stone with a course rotary-type
Thermal Unit; the amount of heat required to raise the
temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit
at sea level, used as the basic unit of definite heat
generation and transmission.
of improvement in gloss or general appearance, or both,
of a polish by a mechanical action.
A smooth finish produced by grinding with power sanders.
rock of adequate quality to be quarried and cut as dimension
stone as it exists in nature.
indicating the assembly of pieces or layers to complete
a wall, etc…
Convex rounding of a stone member, such as a stair tread.
A convex, semicircular molding formed on the end of
framework in which large stone slabs are packed for
A mechanical process which produces textures surfaces.
Textures vary from subtle to rough.
To place mortar on a masonry unit with a trowel.
Once thought to be exclusive to the plumbing trade,
it is a visible sign of working with intense concentration
An external corner formed by the meeting of two square-edged
stones, either one overlapping the other.
mortar on stone on stone tile units with a trowel before
setting into position, to insure adhesion and to aid
method of installation which involves the use of spots
of mortar at corners and middle of stone tile.
A projecting mass of masonry set at an angle to or bonded
into a wall that it strengthens or supports. A buttress
decreases in its cross-sectional area form top to base.
rubber formed by the copolymerization of isobutylene
composed predominantly of clastic sand-size grains of
calcite, or rarely aragonic, usually as fragments of
shells or fossils. Some calcarenites contain oolites
and may be termed oolitic limestone. Calareous quart-based
stone in which the calcium carbonate is present chiefly
as binding material are not included in this category.
The natural mineral form of calcium carbonate.
A limestone containing not more than 5% of magnesium
A crystalline variety of limestone containing not more
than 5% of magnesium carbonate.
Descriptions of a white or milky-like streak occurring
in stone. It is a joint plane usually wider than a glass
seam and has been re-cemented by deposition of calcite
in the crack and is structurally sound.
rising from the horizontal, to gain an actual or apparent
effect of arching.
A sheltering roof over a niche or a doorway.
A volcanic quartz-based stone with qualities similar
to Adoquin, but not as dense; quarried in Mexico.
member, supported at only one end, that projects from
Masonry units laid on top of a finished wall, column,
door, or molding.
The ability of masonry to store heat as a result of
its mass, density and specific heat.
The movement of a liquid in the interstices of a porous
material, as a result of surface tension; the phenomenon
responsible for dry materials sucking moisture above
the normal water level.
Column cap, the top member or group of members of a
column, pier, shaft, or pilaster.
stone of a structure; differing from capital in that
it is not a supporting member.
A salt of carbonic acid.
A weak acid.
Shaping by cutting a design to form; the trade of a
stone industry, the artisan who does carved work.
Cutting of ornamental shapes, figures, etc… from models
or details, which are too intricate to produce from
A precast concrete building stone manufactured to simulate
A substance which accelerates a chemical reaction but
appears to remain unchanged itself (i.e. a hardener
that accelerates the cure of synthetic resin adhesive).
non-hardening putty-like mastic, usually applied to
stone joints with a pressure gun.
The application of a sealant in a joint or opening to
prevent the passage of water, air, dust, and noise.
Or, making a joint tight or leak proof by sealing with
an elastic adhesive compound.
An opening in joints of veneer to allow the passage
of air and moisture from the wall cavity to the exterior.
An exterior wall, usually of masonry, consisting of
an outer and inner wythe separated by continuous airspace.
The ratio of the weight of water absorbed by a masonry
unit when immersed 24 hours in cold water to the weight
of water absorbed after an additional immersion for
five hours in boiling water. Also called the saturation
Cells are distinguished from core holes by being larger
A hydraulic mixture, without aggregate, consisting of
a calcined mixture of clay and pulverized limestone.
A thick, creamy mixture made with pore cement and water
which is used to strengthen the bond between the stone
and the setting bed.
from, or composed of, portland cement.
Temporary formwork for the support of masonry arches
or lintels during construction. Also called center (s).
To bevel the junction of an exterior angle. Or, to cut
away the edge where two surfaces meet in an external
angle, leaving a bevel at the junction.
part of a church interior reserved for clergy and containing
A continuous recess in a wall to receive pipes, ducts,
Description of a textured stone finish, obtained by
using chat sand in the gang sawing process.
A rough gang saw finish produced by sawing with course
normally larger than a fillet.
of square-face stones not breaking joints.
A shaft, approximately vertical, which helps create
a draft for conducting the smoke and gases of combustion
from above a fire to the outside.
The exterior face of the wall directly above the fireplace
Fire clay, terra cotta, or refractory cement built inside
That part of a chimney directly above the firebox where
the walls are brought close together.
irregularly shaped stone piece dislodged, usually from
the edge, from a stone piece.
CIRCULAR FACE: A
stone face worked to convex spherical shape.
CIRCULAR SUNK FACE: A
stone face worked to concave spherical shape.
with power-driven revolving steel disc, rimmed with
diamond or other abrasive elements.
stone face worked to convex circular (not spherical)
SUNK FACE: A
stone face worked to a concave circular (not spherical)
An exterior veneer stone covering that is non-load bearing.
fragments that are derived from pre-existing rocks or
A ranking of masonry units according to their different
grades or types in ASTM specifications, the different
raw materials they are manufactured from, or other characteristics.
chisel used in roughing out process.
mineral aggregate consisting essentially of hydrous
aluminum silicate. It is plastic when sufficiently wetted,
stiff when dried, and vitrified when fired to a sufficiently
A soft, low lime mortar usually used when lime was expensive
and difficult to procure. Its primary usage was in remote
areas for small scale buildings.
visible end of a stone laid as a bond stone.
of marks, dust, and other extraneous materials from
the surface of the stone.
Openings at the bottom of a grout space for cleaning
mortar droppings and other debris prior to grout placement.
An invisible to glossy film or penetrate applied to
substrates to protect, repel or resist water and hydration
allowed to facilitate erection of units and provide
for thermal and other estimated movements in structure.
The ability of a rock mass to break along natural surfaces;
a surface of natural parting. Also used to refer to
the plane or planes along which a stone may likely break
that provides a separation and slip sheet between the
mortar setting bed and the backing or base surface.
Plane or planes along which a stone may likely break
masonry unit or portion of a unit laid in a course.
or short length units used at corners or jambs to maintain
or decorative covering applied to the surface or impregnated
into stone for such purposes as waterproofing, enhancing
resistance to weathering, wear, and chemical action,
or altering the appearance of the stone.
rounded stone large enough for use in paving.
restrictions of a given locality governing the building
of various types of structures.
vertical longitudinal joint between wythes of masonry
filled with mortar or grout.
vertical member whose horizontal dimension measured
at right angles to the thickness does not exceed three
times its thickness and whose height is at least three
times its thickness.
crystalline rock composed predominately of one or more
of the following minerals: calcite, dolomite, or serpentine,
and capable of taking a polish.
unit in which stone that is to be exposed in the final
use is permanently bonded or joined to concealed material.
of stress between components of a member designed so
that in resisting loads, the combined components act
together as a single member.
Multi-component masonry members acting with composite
material consisting of Portland Cement, aggregate, and
water. When mixed together, will result in a chemical
action that will set and harden into rock-like mass.
MASONRY UNIT: A
masonry unit made of Portland Cement, water, and mineral
aggregates, formed into a rectangular prism.
of interior surfaces caused by the release of water
as it cools below the dew point; the formation of frost
or water when air carrying water vapor comes in contact
with a cold surface, cooling the air and reducing its
ability to hold moisture.
similar to sandstone but the rock particles are rounded
or angular gravel rather than sand; an aggregate of
rounded and water-worn pebbles and boulders cemented
together into a coherent stone.
of the stone surface with a liquid solution which is
commonly brush or spray applied; various stone consolidation
processes can extend the life of stone and retard the
decay process, but they cannot permanently arrest deterioration.
Consolidation techniques employ both organic and inorganic
chemicals. Inorganic processes have long-life and exhibit
similar expansion-contraction behavior as treated material.
Most inorganic processes cannot reattach loose pieces
of stone or fill gaps in large cracks; adhesives may
be required for the purposes. Organic processes are
based on the use of synthetic resins. Their life span
is generally less than that of inorganic material, but
they can be especially effective with porous stone as
well as comprehensive strengths. Epoxy resins, for example,
are good adhesives and weatherizers, but current available
epoxies are sensitive to ultraviolet rays which tend
to discolor in time and do not weather well. Mixtures
and combinations of both organic and inorganic treatments
such as ethyl silicate are continually being developed
to take advantage of the benefits of both treatments.
truck body that is usually used to hold and carry imported
dimension stone into the United States.
crust forming across the surface of sandstones and limestones
which follows the contour of the surface rather than
the bedding planes of the stones; the result of direct
pollution; the pores of the stone are blocked by formations
of recrystallized calcium sulfates.
where panels are joined and which expand as the panels
erects and installs fabricated dimensional stone.
for the dimensional change of different parts of a structure
due to shrinkage, expansion, temperature variation or
other causes, so as to avoid the development of high
horizontal top stone of a wall or similar stone construction
, usually flat.
or covering course on top of masonry wall. Designed
to shed water, protect the top and provide a finished,
closed appearance to the wall. Commonly extended beyond
the wall face and incorporating a drip. SEC: Single
edge coping; DEC: Double edge coping.
composed predominately of shells or fragments of shells
loosely cemented by calcite. Coquina is course-textured
and has a high porosity. The term is applied principally
to a very porous rock quarried in Florida.
limestone consisting of the calcareous skeletons of
corals, often containing fragments of other organisms
and usually cemented by calcium carbonate.
successive courses of masonry out from the face of the
wall to increase the wall thickness or to form a shelf
plates of nonferrous metal fixed into a structure to
support stone cladding at intervals and over openings.
openings or perforations within extruded clay products.
forming a part of a corner or angle in a wall. Also
a stone laid at the formal inauguration of the erection
of a building.
projecting stone at the top of an entablature or facade.
items which have been treated or coated to retard harmful
oxidation or other corrosive action.
depression below a surface, as to receive the head of
a nail, screw, or bolt; also, the sinkage of a small
area below the surface plane.
horizontal band of stone of constant height.
is achieved by using stones of the same or approximately
the same heights. Horizontal joints runs on the entire
length of the veneered area. Vertical joints are constantly
broken so that no two joints will be over one another.
for the stone at the top of a pier supporting the lowest
stone of an arch.
concave stone molding.
concave joint shaped with a tool.
split, fracture, fissure, separation, cleavage, or elongated
narrow opening, however caused, visible without magnification
to the human eye and extending from the surface into
the stone, through the grain, matrix, or vein.
shaped metal anchor for holding two adjacent units of
hammer for dressing the face of stone.
protective case in which stone is packed for shipment.
in a coating film usually caused by air or solvent trapped
in the coating, forming bubbles which break after the
film has set sufficiently to prevent leveling.
CRAZE, CRACK: Fine,
random cracks or fissures in a network on or under a
surface of plaster, cement, mortar, concrete, ceramic
coating or paint film; caused by shrinkage.
and continuing dimensional deformation of material under
a sustained load, following the initial spontaneous
plastic deformation. In structures particularly concrete,
the permanent deflection of structural framing or structural
decking resulting from plastic flow under continued
stress. In roofing, the permanent elongation or shrinkage
of roofing membrane, resulting from thermal or moisture
of laminations of strata transverse or oblique to the
main planes of stratification.
Crosset) A side lug at the upper side of an arch stone,
entering a corresponding space on the adjoining stone.
Description of a dark gray to black zigzag marking occurring
in stone; usually structurally sound.
area of a particular portion of a member or the area
of a masonry unit.
The area delineated by the out-to-out dimensions of
or a masonry unit in the plane under construction.
The net cross-sectional area of a masonry unit is
cross-sectional area minus the area of the cores or
cells. For brick units
cored less than 25% the net area is equal to the gross
area. Or, the area
of masonry units, grout, and mortar crossed by the
plane under consideration based on out-to-out dimensions.
either calcite or dolomite, composed of interlocking
crystalline grains of the constituent minerals and of
phaneritic texture. Commonly used synonymous with marble,
and thus representing a recrystallized limestone. Improperly
applied to limestones that display some obviously crystalline
grains in a fine-grained mass but which are not of interlocking
texture and do not compose the entire mass. (NOTE: All
limestones are microscopically, or in part megascopically,
crystalline; the term is thus confusing but should be
restricted to stones that are completely crystalline
and of megascopic and interlocking texture and that
may be classed as marbles.)
units more than two inches thick.
dimensional marble units more than two inches in thickness.
rejected as below the desired or stated grade of stone.
artificial, manmade product, created by mixing minimal
amounts of marble dust into a resin.
and blocks of stone bordering streets, walks, etc, producing
the change in level between sidewalk and street.
of a final, more stable, usable state following a chemical
or physical reaction induced by heat, radiation, etc…
or through evaporation of a solvent.
and hardening process of mortar after installation.
Some materials require damp curing.
of stones bearing moldings, to produce a string course.
lightweight exterior wall system supporting no more
than its own weight, the roof and floors being carried
by an independent structural framework. Sometimes used
in reference to early 19th century brick
buildings but more commonly to mid 20th century
metal panel and glass exteriors.
pad to absorb or counteract severe stresses between
adjoining stone units and or other materials.
dimensional stone, ready to set in place.
required to finish a stone which cannot be done by machine.
term used to describe varying size, finish, and thickness
which are used in fabricating treads, risers, copings,
borders, sills, stools, hearths, mantels and other special
list for each piece of dimension stone showing exact
dimensions including thickness, face finish, edge treatments,
carving, molding, hole drilling, and any other fabrication
details. These are usually prepared in the drafting
department for use in the fabrication plant or shop.
Also called shop lists.
the face of a stone by picking with a pointed tool
extrusive (volcanic) rock, intermediate in color and
composition between basalt and rhyolite.
treatment on interior walls which does not extend to
the ceiling, often ornamented.
course or layer of impervious material which prevents
vertical penetration of water by capillary action.
of moisture penetration due to capillary action by the
addition of one or more coatings of a compound that
is impervious to water.
horizontal or vertical course or layer, usually at least
six inches above the ground level, that prevents the
capillary entrance of moisture from the ground or a
plane elevation used as a reference plane.
cross timbers, or a bulk of concrete or stone, to which
are attached guy pieces of wood, or wire cable, to anchor
an upright post or derrick nearby.
by which a horizontal member bends at the center under
in a laminating assembly characterized by the separation
or loss of adhesion between plies, such as in built-up
roofing or glue-laminated timber.
projections on an entablature.
course immediately below the cornice, having on one
of its members, small uniformly spaced blocks, referred
to as dentils.
OF GLOSS: The
optical phenomenon of relative depth perceived when
viewing reflective surfaces.
device, usually made up of a guyed mast, a boom hinged
to it, and pulley ropes.
into being a mental concept.
representation of a part, usually at a larger scale
than the design to which it belongs.
igneous rock, dark gray to black, sometimes called dolerite.
matching) A veneer panel matching pattern similar to
book matching, except that the third and fourth panels
are inverted over panels one and two.
produced by sawing with diamond toothed saws (either
circular or gang).
pattern in brickwork, usually applied in a diamond or
other diagonal patterns.
layer of interior stone from wall to ceiling.
building stone that has been selected, trimmed, or cut
to specified shapes and sizes. Final surface treatment,
or finish is as specified.
crystallized igneous stone composed of feldspar and
brick laid with it’s corner projecting from the wall
AND CHAIN: Pair
of steel hooks with rings attached into which chain
is slung; vertical pull on chain draws hooks together
in horizontal direction to grip stone blocks.
magnesium carbonate; a crystalline variety of limestone,
containing in excess of 40 percent of magenesium carbonate
as the dolomite molecule.
limestone rich in magnesium carbonate, frequently somewhat
crystalline in character. It is found in ledge formations
in a wide variety of color tones and textures. Generally
speaking, its crushing and tensile strengths are greater
than oolitic limestones, and its appearance shows greater
variety in texture.
crystalline variety of limestone, containing in excess
of 49% of magnesium carbonate as the dolomite molecule.
splayed tenon that is shaped like a dove’s tail, broader
at its end than at its base, which fits into the recess
of a corresponding mortise.
molding in which interlocked triangles are used.
metal pin used in aligning and strengthening joints
of adjacent stone units, or to assist in anchoring stone
metal bars or rods used to connect two sections of masonry
or masonry to other materials.
strip or border of faced stone, also known as a margin.
translates and draws or prepares a design into drawings.
HAND DRESSED: The
cutting of rough chunks of stone by hand to create a
square or rectangular shape. A stone which is sold as
dressed stone generally refers to stone ready for installation.
and squaring, sometimes called scabbling, of blocks
for storage and shipment.
a cylindrical hole, or a tool used to drill a cylindrical
cut into the underside of projecting stone to divert
water and prevent it from running down the face of a
wall or other surface of which it is a part.
molding shaped for drip.
blunt chisel for facing stone.
the cylindrical stone blocks of a column shaft.
mixture of Portland Cement and fine aggregate, dampened,
but not to the extent that it will flow. It is usually
rammed or packed in a hole to secure a bar or anchor,
but it is also packed under base plates.
fracture which may be a plane of weakness.
wall is a stone that is constructed one stone upon the
other without the use of any mortar. Generally used
for retaining walls.
finishes on one piece of stone, such as thermal and
of the ability of dimension stone to endure and to maintain
its essential and distinctive characteristics of strength,
resistance to decay and moisture, and appearance.
matching piece of dimension stone that is cut, finished
and attached with the tightest possible joint to a floor,
wall, top, or other larger piece of stone to increase
its length or width or to repair or replace a missing
or damaged area. Dutchmen are usually affixed in the
fabrication shop with epoxy or polyester resin.
between a vertical load reaction and a centroidal axis
set on its narrow side instead of on its flat side.
height of a member that is assumed when calculating
the slenderness ratio.
or encrustation of soluble salts generally white, usually
carbonates or sulfates, that may form on the surface
of stone, brick, concrete or mortar when moisture moves
through and evaporates from the masonry.
polish or matte surface.
bush-hammered; interrupted parallel markings not over
3/32" apart; a corrugated finish; smoother near arris
lines and on small surfaces.
section resulting from cutting a cone obliquely through
its curved surface.
deriving decoration from fossils or shells.
of adding color to incised lettering in stone.
projecting group of stones immediately above a column
capital. Consists of three major parts: architrave,
cornice, and frieze.
resulting from the gradual diminishing in the diameter
of the upper two-thirds of a column.
of solid particles of binder and the liquid carrier
in which they are suspended but insoluble.
of synthetic, thermosetting resins which produce tough,
hard, chemical resistant coating and excellent adhesives.
flexible, usually thermal setting resin made by polymerization
of an epoxide and used as an adhesive. They are characterized
by toughness, good adhesion, corrosion, chemical resistance,
and good dielectric properties. Most epoxy resins are
the two-part type, which harden when blended. It is
used as surface coatings, adhesives for composites and
for metals, floor surfacing and wall panels, cements
of and setting vertical dimensional stone in place.
swelling or scaling of stone or mineral surfaces in
thin layers, caused by chemical or physical weather
or by heat.
of length and bulk by reason of temperature rise or
absorption of water.
metal expandable unit inserted into a drilled hole that
grips stone by expansion.
anchoring device; a socket that grips a drilled hole
in stone by expanding as the bolt is screwed into it.
joint designed to expand or contract with the temperature
clerks and hastens the arrival of building materials
or equipment to meet a progress schedule.
applied to the larger pieces of stone aggregate purposefully
exposed for their color and texture in a cast slab.
Can be done by casting on a slab or by application to
an existing wall over epoxy or cement coat.
of a building or situated on the outside.
stone manufactured and ready for installation.
involved in transforming building stone from quarry
blocks to cut or finished stone. This includes primary
sawing into slabs. It may also include both hand and
mechanical techniques such as sawing, drilling, grinding,
honing, polishing, and carving.
of a building, usually the front.
to the exposed surface of stone on the structure. Or,
a horizontal belt of vertical face, often used in combination
wall of a hollow masonry unit, on its front and back
SHELL BEDDING: Mortar
applied only to the face shells of hollow masonry units.
forming a part of a wall, used as a finished surface.
Also, a wall in which the stone face and the back-up
wall are of different materials.
OF SAFETY: The
factor by which the expected weight or stress is multiplied
to indicate the surplus of strength or resistance provided
for safety’s sake.
groove routed in a solid piece of stone to simulate
band of vertical face, often used in combinations with
of stone strata which may interfere with natural underground
drainage, or a break in the layers or bedding plane.
sharp arris formed by beveling or cutting a piece of
that slopes in only one direction (not ridged or gabled).
In some areas, it implies slope towards rear of wall.
of crystalline minerals, all silicates of aluminum with
either potassium, sodium, calcium, or barium. An essential
constituent of nearly all crystalline rocks.
or quartz-based stone (sandstone) containing a high
proportion of iron oxide.
of wall between openings, corners, etc…, principally
composed of stretchers.
blocks separated from ledges by natural processes and
scattered through or upon the ground cover; applied
also to similar transported materials, such as glacial
boulders and cobblestones.
stone found on top of the ground.
often used as a decorative feature with moldings.
expression used in the fabrication of marble to indicate
the filling of natural voids with color-blended cements,
shellac or synthetic resins and similar materials.
to a resilient material placed in the rear portion of
a joint to function as a sealant stop.
dual, silt-size, and sand-size material resulting from
processing (usually crush tog) rock.
surface applied to the face of dimensional stone during
or business which operates a plant or machinery for
the fabrication of domestic and foreign stones for building
and other purposes.
exposed top member of a flooring assembly.
clay used for making brick that is highly resistant
to heat without deforming.
RESISTANTIVE MATERIAL: See
on a hearth, served by a chimney flue, where an open
fire may be laid.
or combination protecting structural members and increasing
their fire resistance.
used in Europe to describe the installation of stone
slabs of stone used for flagging or paving walks, driveways,
patios, etc…, and is generally a fine-grained sandstone,
bluestone, quartzite, or slate, but thin slabs of other
stones may be used.
process to produce specific color tones in clay units
by creating a reducing atmosphere in the kiln. Or, a
thin impervious material placed in mortar joints and
through air spaces in masonry to prevent water penetration
and provide water drainage. Also, metal or other protective
material used to cover joints, tops of walls, parapet
walls, or angles, as of a roof.
effect obtained when certain marble varieties are sawn
parallel to their natural bedding plane.
to the marble industry, it is cut parallel to the natural
fine-grained, naturally occurring form of silica that
tool, a flat board with handle on one side, used for
spreading and smoothing plaster or cement.
final mortar coat applied with a float over which the
neat coat is applied.
surface of a room or building upon which one stands
or walks. Also, the area between two adjacent levels
of a building.
plan, or horizontal section, of a building.
used as an interior pedestrian walking surface.
of adjoining surfaces in the same plane.
joint where the mortar or sealant is pressed flush with
the stone face.
having a regular series of concave grooves.
buttress that includes a rampant arch to carry the inner
thrust to the pier.
or banded structure of rock in which the mineral grains
became re-aligned at right angles to a directional force
that existed during metamorphism.
bush-hammered finish with same characteristics as 6-cut,
but with markings not more than 7/32" apart.
stones under 750 pounds.
space between an entrance and the main interior to which
that may be cut freely in any direction without fracture
member of the entablature occurring above the architrave
and below the cornice.
stone seat near the altar of a church.
important face of a building, or that containing its
in the bed surface of a brick, sometimes called a panel.
MORTAR BEDDING: Mortar
applied to the entire thickness of a masonry unit.
of finishing the interior face of masonry wall to provide
space for insulation, to prevent moisture transmittance,
or to provide a smooth or plane surface for finishing.
of striking a ‘V’ in a bed of mortar with the point
of the trowel.
triangular section of a wall extending upward from the
level of the eaves to the apex. Also, a member resembling
the triangular end of a roof.
granular stone composed chiefly of pyroxene, augite
or diallage, and plagioclase.
chip or spall.
machine with multiple blades used to saw rough quarry
block into slabs. Also
known as a frame saw.
of the granular surface of stone resulting from gang
usually single diamond blade saw with a mobile rail
and blade that can be repositioned along its tracks
of small splinters of stone in the mortar joints before
the mortar has firmly set.
or GAUGING: A
grinding process to make all pieces of material to be
used together the same thickness.
of a narrow glass-like streak occurring in stone. It
is a joint plane that has been recemented by deposition
of translucent crystalline calcite in the crack and
is usually structurally sound.
or shininess, measured as light reflectance.
rock with a banded or coarsely foliated structure, often
called "Trade Granite". Composed essentially
of silicate minerals with interlocking and visibly granular
texture in which the foliation is due primarily to alternating
layers, regular or irregular, of contrasting mineralogic
course at the grade level, generally waterproofed with
a dampcheck or damp course.
cleavage direction in a stone. Also the particles (crystals,
sand grain, etc…) in a stone.
hard, crystalline, igneous rock, gray to pink in color,
composed of feldspar, quartz, and lesser amounts of
dark ferromagnesium materials. Black "granites" are
similar to true "granites" in structure and texture,
but are composed of different minerals.
having a texture characterized by particles that are
apparent to the unaided eye. For sedimentary rocks:
particles less than 4 inches in diameter and approximately
equal in size.
chiefly of quartz, but may contain granite, limestone,
basalt, and other rocks.
conglomerate stone composed of firmly cemented fragments
that has set but not dried.
stones that have been metamorphosed or otherwise altered
that they have assumed a distinctive greenish color
owing to the presence of one or more of the following
minerals: chlorite, epidote, or actinolite.
smooth non-reflective finish primarily used on marble
and limestone marble.
brick that is blended with clay to form new brick.
CLASSIFICATION FOR SOUNDNESS: Standard
trade practice definitions setting forth extent of shop
fabrication normally required for group A,B, C, and
of cement material and aggregate to which sufficient
water is added to produce pouring consistency without
segregation of the constituents.
height to which grout is placed in a cell, collar joint
or cavity without stopping; an increment of the total
total height of a masonry wall to be grouted prior to
the placement of
additional masonry. A grout pour may consist of one
or more grout lifts.
CORE MASONRY: Masonry
construction made with hollow units in which all or
specific cores are filled with grout.
construction made with solid masonry in which the interior
joints and voids are filled with grout.
recommended specification for the furnishing and installation
of building stone.
or wire which, with others, prevents a post or derrick
from having side sway.
calcium sulfate. It is formed naturally as the result
of the reaction of sulfuric acid produced by decomposition
of pyrite upon the calcium carbonate of shells existing
in clay; a sedimentary rock.
of stacking brick in a kiln or a kiln car. Or, laying
brick with the bottom edge set in from the plane surface
of the wall.
pattern of superficial cracking in an exposed concrete
surface. Usually surface openings of 20 mils or less.
salt; sodium chloride; a sedimentary rock.
BULL NOSE: A
convex semicircular molding used on exposed edges or
stone units such as stair treads, tops and window stools.
exposed edge or molding with a semi-circular section
CUT RANDOM RECTANGULAR: A
pattern where all the stone is hand cut into squares
and rectangles; joints are fairly consistent. Similar
to sawed-bed ashlar in appearance.
OR MACHINE PITCH-FACED ROCK-FACED: A
finish given to both veneer stone and cutting stock.
This is created by establishing a straight line back
from the irregular face of the stone. Proper tools are
then used to cut along the tile line leaving a straight
arris and the intended rustic finish on the face.
vitrified clay products that have been fired at high
of stone determined by ASTM C241 test.
of a stone which has been tooled to match the face of
the stone. Heads are used at outside corners, windows,
door jams, or any place where the veneering will be
visible from the side.
vertical mortar joint between ends of masonry units.
Also called a cross-joint or a vertical joint.
unit that overlaps two or more adjacent wythes of masonry
to tie them together. Also called a bonder.
concealed brick header in the interior of a wall, not
showing on the
bat placed to look like a header for purposes of establishing
also called a false header.
or Flashed Header: A
header of darker color than the field of the wall.
continuous course of header brick; also called heading
stone, as in keystone or cornerstone.
part of the floor of a room made of stone on which the
fire is made or above is a stove, fireplace, furnace,
which contains one-half of a molecule of water compared
to one molecule of the principal element or compound
forming the hydrate.
of setting in which the units are laid aslant, with
the direction of incline reversing in alternate courses,
forming a zigzag effect.
rough form by mallet and chisel.
bonding agent of high ultimate strength used to join
individual pieces of stone into pre-assembled units.
in the top beds of stones to engage Lewis pins for hoisting.
BRICK UNIT: A
brick unit in which the net cross-sectional area in
any plane parallel to the bearing surface is less than
75% of its gross cross-sectional area measured in the
cavity wall, usually exterior, built in two separate
parts, structurally connected as necessity with space
between for checking the passage of water, or for better
insulation created by the closed air space.
HONE FINISH: A
very fine, satin smooth finish on stone. This is the
last step before polishing. A super fine smooth finish
with little or no gloss. Recommended for commercial
of minerals including calcium, iron, magnesium, and
aluminum silicates. May be present in igneous stones.
formed by the combination of water and some other elements
to which sufficient water has been added to convert
the oxides to hydroxides.
under (or with) water.
which absorbs or has exhibited affinity for water.
no affinity for or is repellent to water. The quality
of beading water on a substrate.
chemically combined water.
absorbed by hydrophilic porous materials.
of three principle groups of rock that make up the earth’s
surface; formed by the solidification of molten matter.
who acts as an independent sales representative in the
United States, its territories and Canada for foreign
purchases, stocks, and distributes foreign materials
in the United States, its territories and Canada, in
substantial quantities and reliable quality.
inwardly or engrave, as in an inscription.
of some stones to allow for future bonding-in work.
RATE OF ABSORPTION: The
weight of water absorbed when a brick is partially immersed
in water for one minute, expressed in grams per 30 square
inches of contact surface, also called suction.
first setting action of mortar, the beginning of the
decoration achieved by the insertion of lines or patterns
of contrasting material.
cut in stone.
of a room or of a building.
having horizontal or nearly horizontal upper and lower
surfaces. Also called flat or straight arch.
side of a window or door opening, against which the
sash or the door abuts.
between installed units or between dimensional stones
and the adjoining material.
of joints between courses of masonry units before the
mortar has hardened.
drawing detailing dimensions, location and configuration
of stone units and joints related to the structure.
rake, cove, weathered, bead, stripped, and "V".
reinforcement placed in or on mortar bed joints.
member in the framing of a floor or ceiling.
patterns, a piece of stone of higher rise than adjacent
stones which is used to end a horizontal mortar joint
at the point where it is set.
aluminum silicate mineral.
into the edge of stone with saw blade for insertion
deepening a quarry, or starting to quarry downward from
a horizontal surface, the first block removed from a
new ledge, providing space and access for further block
removal by undercutting, underdrilling, or lateral shifting.
wedge-shaped stone placed in the crown of an arch regarded
as binding the whole.
oven, or heated enclosure used for burning or firing
brick or clay material.
from one kiln that have not yet been sorted or graded
for size or color variation.
brick cut diagonally to have one two-inch end and one
full width end.
cope stone which by its shape is also part of the wall,
and may support other cope stones.
one surface with another.
wherby walls or columns are braced in the vertical span
by beams, floors or roofs, or walls in the horizontal
span by columns, pilasters, buttresses or cross walls.
or resins in water which coalesce to form a continuous
film that imparts specific properties to portland cement
for turning columns, balusters, and other circular stone
work; also for rubbing and polishing surfaces of same.
term applied to igneous rocks such as basalt and rhyolite,
that erupted from the earth by volcanic action.
of a wall built up and racked back on successive courses.
A line is attached to leads as a guide for constructing
a wall between them.
spacers in the solid horizontal joints to support the
top stones until mortar has been set.
of stone used horizontally to cover a tomb.
dimension stone used on sides of a fireplace opening.
tapered head device wedged into a tapered recess in
the edge of a dimensional stone unit, used for lifting
purposes and hanging soffits.
in cut stones for lifting and supporting during setting
of cut stones and sometimes for permanent support. Holes
are checked for the particular Lewis (lifting device
or hook) to be used.
compounds which cause a chemical set in reaction with
hydroxide or slaked lime that has been reduced to dry
lime on plastic form ready for addition to mortar.
rock composed primarily of calcite or dolomite. The
varieties of limestone used as dimensional stone are
usually well consolidated and exhibit a minimum of graining
or bedding direction. Limestones that contain not more
than five percent magnesium carbonate may be termed
calcite limestone, as distinguished from those that
contain between five and forty percent magnesium carbonate,
and from those that contain in excess of forty percent
as the mineral dolomite. Recrystallized limestones and
compact, dense, relatively pure microcrystalline varieties
that are capable of taking a polish are known as marbles.
stretched taut as a guide for laying the top edge of
a course of masonry units.
sound sections of stone that are cemented and dowelled
to the back of stone wall units, to give greater strength,
additional bearing surface, assist in support, or to
increase joint depth.
metal pin used to attach line used for alignment of
sound sections of stone cemented and doweled to the
back of thin stone units; to give greater strength,
additional bearing surface, or to increase joint depth.
placed or constructed over an opening in a wall to carry
the superimposed load.
where one edge of a stone is higher than adjacent edges,
giving the finished surface a ragged appearance.
refers to flagging materials. Lipping is caused when
two pieces of material to be joined together are slightly
warped or twisted causing one or more edges to be higher
or lower than the adjoining material.
system or element designed to carry loads in addition
to its own dead load.
projecting member of a larger stone piece, to engage
an adjoining unit or to serve as an aid in handling.
sill set into the jambs on each side of masonry opening.
generally recognized standard machine finish produced
by the planers.
of wood or plastic hammer, used to drive chisels.
badland; refers to dark-colored rock, commonly lava,
in rough terrain.
member spanning the opening of a fireplace. Also, a
shelf (usually cubic stone) which is part of the finish
and above the fireplace opening.
stone fabricated, ready for installation.
fabricates dimensional stone.
Carbonate with other components which give it color,
markings, and texture suitable as a desirable building
stone. Scientific definition: A metamorphic
(recrystallized) limestone composed predominately
of crystalline grains of calcite or dolomite or both,
having interlocking or mosaic texture.
crystalline rock composed predominately of one or
of the following materials: calcite, dolomite, or
serpentine, and capable of taking a polish.
INSTITUTE OF AMERICA: An
international trade association whose membership is
composed of contractors, exporters, importers, manufacturers,
producers, and wholesalers of dimensional stone, as
well as those who supply products and services to the
short-handled heavy hammer with two round or octagonal
faces, used to drive hammer-head shaping tools.
or installer of stone.
of the mason’s craft with brick, tile, concrete masonry
units and other materials. Or, the work resulting from
the practice of the mason’s craft; structures built
of stone, brick or other materials set as units in patterns
and amenable to assembly with mortar whether or not
mortar is usually used. Or, the type of construction
made up of masonry units laid with mortar or grout or
other accepted method of jointing.
constructed with steel reinforcement embedded
such a manner that the two materials act together
in resisting forces.
construction without steel reinforcement, except
that which may be used for bonding or reducing the
effects of dimensional changes due to variations in
moisture content or temperature. Also called plain
mill-mixed cementious material to which sand and water
is added to make mortar.
or manufactured building units of fired clay or shale,
concrete, stone, glass, gypsum, etc…
mortar-like material composed of solvent-based organic
adhesives that cures quickly by evaporation of the solvents.
cutting, and placing finished stone slabs to obtain
a uniform and symmetrical pattern of natural veining
in which a crystallized mineral is embedded.
in installation of dimensional stone.
of great size.
horizontal member or surface of an altar, usually of
altered in appearance, density and crystalline structure,
and in some cases mineral composition, by high temperature
or pressure, or both. Slate is derived from shale; quartzite
from quartz sandstone; and true marble from limestone.
or alteration in a rock caused by exterior agencies,
such as deep-seated heat and pressure, or intrusion
of rock materials.
of linear measure in the metric system; equivalent to
of mineral silicates in a multi-layered form; characterized
by cleaving which permits splitting into thin sheets.
limestone that consists largely or wholly of crystals
that are so small as to be recognizable only under magnification.
of quarry blocks through sawing, planing, turning, and
of two units at an angle, of which the junction line
usually bisects on a 45’ angle.
or full size stone sample panel installed to show full
range of color, shading and texture.
CUT PATTERN CUT: This
refers to standard patterns used throughout the stone
industry. These patterns are usually based on multiples
of 3" or 6", stone that is multiple cut or pattern cut
is pre-cut to allow for ¼" or ½" joints or beds.
OF RUPTURE: The
stress at which a specimen of stone breaks in the testing.
gauge of hardness among minerals. Not to be confused
with hardness as determined by ASTM C241 test.
template. Sometimes spelled in the trade as "mould."
stone deviating form a plane surface by projections,
curved profiles, recesses, or any combination thereof.
from a single block of stone, as a monolithic column,
in contrast with a stacked column consisting of superimposed
stone drums. Also, a bed of portland cement cast over
a concrete slab without an isolation membrane.
to gang saw, except it has only one blade for cutting
large stone units.
mixture of cement , water, and fine aggregates which
combine together through a chemical process of crystallization
to form a hardened solid that bonds building units together.
containing a high percentage of cementitous components.
sticky mortar that adheres to a trowel.
that is deficient in cementitious components. It is
harsh and difficult to spread.
mortar with a low free-alkali content to avoid efflorescent
or staining by adjacent stones migration of soluble
troweled layer of mortar, in a plastic state, in which
building units will be set.
which is generally irregular with no definite pattern.
Nearly all the stone used in a mosaic pattern is irregular
division member between windows or doors
cut in rectangular multiples of a certain dimension.
Usually cut to allow for standard ¼" or standard ½"
usually splitface, which is cut in various rises which
will "course out" (level with) each other when used
in proper combination with standard-width mortar joints.
aluminum-rich mica found in granite.
ASSOCIATION OF MARBLE PRODUCERS: The
National trade Association of the American Marble Industry
whose membership is composed of marble producers (quarries)
in the United States, its territories and Canada.
setting of the stone on the same plane as it was formed
in the ground. This generally applies to all stratified
with high clay content.
generally pertains to stones which are formed in layers
in the ground. When such stones are elevated or separated
along a natural seam, the remaining surface is referred
to a natural cleft surface.
technical a redundancy, as a stone its occurrence by
definition, the term is used to distinguish true stone
from imitation materials.
pure cement uncut by a sand admixture.
CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA: See
BIT FINISH: Obtained
by planing the stone with a planer tool in which irregular
nicks have been made in the cutting edge.
dimension greater than a specified masonry dimension
by the thickness of a mortar joint.
that will neither ignite nor actively support combustion
in air at a temperature of 1.200’F when exposed to fire.
to harmful oxidation or other corrosive actions because
of its composition (i.e. stainless steel, bronze, copper).
composed of materials which individually or collectively
do not contain material that will stain and usually
have a very low alkali content.
front edge of a stair tread.
with a serrated or notched edge used for spreading mortar
or adhesive in ridges of a specific thickness.
phase of lava, usually black.
an abbreviation frequently used in dimensioning shop
drawings, designating dimensions from the center of
one member to the center of the next.
or unit that is set in from the course directly under
it, the opposite of a projection.
molding with a reverse curved edge, concave above, convex
stone under 150 pounds.
of quartz in crystalline form of calcium carbonate.
It is characterized by a structure of parallel brands
each differing in color or in the degree of translucency.
Considering to be a marble because it can take a polished.
crystalline from, commonly microcrystalline, of calcium
carbonate deposited usually from cold water solutions.
It is generally translucent and shows characteristic
layering. Commercially, onyx is considered a marble
because it can be polished.
consisting mainly of calcite, made up of largely oolites
or granular particles (generally tiny fossils or fossil
fragments) that have calcium coatings. A calcite-cemented
calcareous stone formed of shells and shell fragments,
practically non-crystalline in character it is found
in massive deposits located almost entirely in Lawrence,
Monroe, and Owen counties in Indiana, also in Alabama,
Kansas, and Texas. This limestone is characteristically
a freestone, without cleavage planes, possessing a remarkable
uniformity of composition, texture and structure. It
also possesses a high internal elasticity, adapting
itself without damage to extreme temperature changes.
into a rock of sill ceous material in the form of opal,
a hydrous silicate.
fairly level quarry at or near ground level.
of any chemical compound containing carbon (some of
the simple compounds of carbon, such as carbon dioxide,
are frequently classified as inorganic compounds). To
date, nearly one million organic compounds have been
synthesized or isolated. Many occur in nature; others
are produced by chemical synthesis.
protruding above or at ground level.
refers to veneer stone. To be out of wind is to have
the arris of the stone not in parallel or perpendicular
lines; stone which is out of wind has an irregular or
stone, earth or other quarry material covering useful
of stacking stone on wooden pallets for shipment or
which comes palletized is easily moved and transported
by modern handling equipment. Palletized stone generally
arrives at the site in better condition then non-palletized
unit of fabricated stone veneer.
non-bearing wall consisting of panels of various materials,
each panel being separately held in frame. The frame
may be the structure itself or fastened to the structural
framework of the building.
wall around the perimeter of a building at roof level
or around balconies.
of any wall entirely above the roof line.
of stone separating chapels, especially at the east
end of the aisles, from the body of the church.
by applying a coat of mortar to the back of the stone
units or to the face of the back-up material.
of stone floors in geometrical or other patterns consisting
of two or more colors or materials.
wall one story or less in height, generally non-loadbearing.
expressing force per unit area (PSI is the English equivalent).
compound used to fill natural voids or to replace chips
and broken corners or edges in fabricated pieces of
dimension stone. Mixed or selected to match the stone
in color and texture.
and texture added to a surface by time and various allies.
unit of fabricated stone for use as an exterior paving
supporting structure or piece for a bust, column, statue,
face of a gable, if separated by entablature or molding
from the lower wall and treated as decorative unit.
treatment that lines masonry pores; no film is formed
on the surface.
which contains a considerable number of relatively small
openings. Often called pierced wall or screened
of vapor transmission of one grain per square foot per
inch of mercury vapor pressure difference.
of a substance which permits passage of water vapor;
moisture vapor transmission.
extending through the thickness of a wall and finished
on both ends.
of stone set on other stones serving as stops and arches
rocks, the relatively large and conspicuous crystals
in a finer-grain matrix or ground mass.
number denoting the degree of acidity or alkalinity;
7 is a neutral value. Acidity increases with decreasing
values below 7, while alkalinity increases with increasing
values above 7.
of acid organic compounds used in the manufacture of
epoxy resins, phenolformaldehyde resins, plasticizers,
plastics and wood preservatives.
dressed using mason’s point
& DIP: A
method of laying brick with one hand and, with the other
hand, dip enough mortar on a trowel to lay the brick.
Sometimes called the Eastern or New England
stone support, smaller than and distinct from a column.
pier of shallow depth; in classical architecture it
follows the height and width of related columns with
similar base sod cap. In classical architecture, it
follows the height and width of related columns, with
similar base and cap.
resembling rock-faced produced with pitching tool.
having arris clearly defined, face however is roughly
cut with pitching chisel used along the line which becomes
to large chisel but with blunt, not sharp, broad edge,
about 6mm thick.
architecture, a basin of stone or marble in which the
challice is washed after the rite of the Eucharist.
for planing moldings on to stone; machine used to reduce
thickness and gauge stone; machine used to produce a
machine finish on limestone.
OF PARIS: A
calcined gypsum in a hemihydrate state.
designs, usually simple and geometrical, cut through
a thin slab of stone, as distinguished from a tracery
proper, which is formed by mortared sections of molding.
square part of the base of a column. A square base or
a lower block, as in a pedestal. The base block at the
juncture of base-board and trim around an opening.
by rough planing the surface of stone, braking or plucking
out small particles to give rough texture.
AND FEATHERS: Tools
used for splitting stone blocks.
shaped metal weight that is suspended from the lower
end of a line to determine the vertical trueness.
narrow board with parallel edges having a straight line
drawn through the middle and a string attached at the
upper end of the line for determining a vertical plane.
wood in sheet form, with alternate laminations, changing
direction of grain. Dimensionally unstable in the presence
drawn nearly to a point.
rough, tooled surface.
filling and finishing of mortar joints that have been
and smoothest finish available in stone, generally only
possible on hard, dense materials. Or, a glossy finish
which brings out the full color and character of the
flexible, usually thermal setting resin formed by a
polymerization process using a small amount of accelerator
compound and used as an adhesive or to repair or fill
film sheet used for curing or as a cleavage or isolation
of pore space to the total volume of material expressed
as a percent..
rock characterized by distinct and contrasting sizes
of course and fine grained crystals. Used as a decorative
hydraulic cement product obtained by pulverizing and
calcimining a properly proportioned mixture of three
minerals: lime, silica, and alumina.
of drawing soluble salts or stains out of stone by applying
an absorbent such as clay or diatomaceous earth, mixed
to a paste with water or cleaning solvent.
or more stones combined into a single unit by use of
resins, steel framing or concrete backing.
fabricated in a location other than its final location
in the structure. Also known as preassembled,
panelized, and prelaid masonry.
received its final form before introduction into a structure,
as in precast concrete slabs.
surrounding an altar.
RELIEVING JOINT: An
open horizontal joint below the supporting angle or
hanger located at approximately every floor line and
not over 15 ft. apart horizontally, and every 20-30
ft. vertically, to prevent the weight from being transmitted
to the masonry below. These joints are to be caulked
with a resilient nonstaining material to prevent moisture
assemblage made with masonry units and mortar and sometimes
grout. Primarily used to predict the strength of full
scale masonry members.
of the exposed face of a cross section.
for cutting moldings on to stone.
to the pulling out of stones in a veneered wall to give
an effect of ruggedness. The amount each stone is pulled
out can vary between ¼" and 1 ½"; stones are either
pulled out at the same degree at both ends or sometimes
one end is pulled out leaving the other flush with the
majority of veneer.
cellular, glassy lava, resembling a solid froth.
drawn to a narrow blade used for roughing process.
sulfides of certain metals. The most common is iron
pyrite, which is iron disulfide, a brittle mineral that
is brassy yellow in color with greenish-black streaks.
which has been extracted from the earth by means of
man power and machines.
extracts natural stone from a quarry.
of an operation where a natural deposit of stone is
removed from the ground.
a rectangular piece of rough stone as it comes from
the quarry, frequently scabbed (dressed) or wire-sawed
building stone, unselected materials within the ranges
of color and texture available from the quarry that
is the source.
moisture in stone deposits and freshly quarried stone.
molding having a profile of one-quarter of a circle
dioxide occurring in colorless and transparent or colored
hexagonal crystals and also in crystalline masses. One
of the most common minerals, the chief constituent of
quartz-based stone and granite.
stone may be either sedimentary in formation or metamorphic.
granular rock composed of quartz crystals, usually so
firmly cemented as to make the mass homogeneous. The
stone is generally quarried in stratified layers, the
surfaces of which are unusually smooth, and the crushing
and tensile strength are extremely high. The color range
is wide. Or, a silver-gray, metamorphic sandstone formed
in exceedingly hard layers. In some deposits, intrusion
of minerals during the formation process created unusual
shades of brown and gold.
metamorphic sandstone consisting of quartz grains cemented
with silica, but not as hard as quartzite. Geologically,
it is an intermediate rock between sandstone and quartzite.
cut brick having a nominal two-inch horizontal face
oxide which is crushed limestone that has been calcined.
MITRE JOINT: An
external corner formed by two stone panels, at an angle
with meeting edges mitered and exposed portion finished.
separating a bead or other molding from the adjoining
at the corner of a wall emphasized by size, projection,
rustication, or by a different finish.
cut into the surface along an edge so as to receive
another piece similarly cut.
back successive courses of masonry.
cut on the face of stone.
mortar joint formed by removing the mortar a given depth
from the face of the masonry.
bend of a handrail where a sharp change in level is
required, as at the post of a stair landing.
or vault which springs from one level of support and
rests at the other side on a higher level.
pattern where joints are web-like.
of square or rectangular stones with neither vertical
nor horizontal joints continuous and installed without
in which the course heights vary in size.
of any thickness that is continued across the entire
face. All range courses need not be of the same thickness.
OF COLOR: The
extent of variation of color, shade, markings, texture,
veining, and other characteristics of dimension stone,
usually defined by using a number of samples or a mock-up.
additional cut that countersinks a kerf from to the
back edge of another piece of stone for the purpose
of additional anchor clearance. It is not a gauged cut.
If used for a bearing surface, must be shimmed to allow
for tolerance in the cut,
floor and curb used as the bottom of showers.
in a wall plane.
limestone in which a new pattern of crystallinity has
pervasively replaced the crystal orientation in the
original clastic particles, fossils, or fossil fragments,
and interstitial cement.
flat molding of rectangular profile to receive and secure
the surface of stone in place by some dressing method
to clean by exposing fresh stone.
technique often called "rodding"; refers to the strengthening
of unsound marble and limestone by cementing aluminum
or stainless steel rods into grooves or channels cut
into the back of a stone unit. Another method of " reinforcement"
is the lamination of fiberglass to the back of tile
or RELIEVE: Ornament
in relief. The ornament of figure can be slightly, half
or greatly projected.
built over a lintel, flat arch, or smaller arch to divert
loads, thus relieving the lower member from excessive
loading, also known as discharging or safety
out, refilling, and finishing joints with new mortar.
corner of a stone member with a profile other than a
behind an altar, usually richly treated in stone.
performed, including cleaning, repair, and finishing,
to return the stone to its original character, finish,
which have multiple widths and thicknesses, used as
a self-supporting wall with no back-up.
chemical admixture to mortar or grout that slows setting
mortar and re-mix after original mixing, to the proper
consistency for use.
surface hand dressed to show a netlike or veinlike raised
pattern. Also, a wall built of square pieces set diagonally,
with the joints showing a netlike pattern.
The right angle turn of a wall, molding, or other horizontal
facing with the finish appearing on both the face and
the edge of the same stone; as on the corner of a building.
of stone between its outer face and a window or door
set in an opening; the reveal is at 90 degrees to the
pronounced direction of splitting or cleavage of a stone.
Rift and grain may be obscure, as in some granites,
but are important in both quarrying and processing stone.
shaped stones used for facing bridge abutments and fills;
stones thrown together without order to form a foundation,
sustain walls, or minimize soil erosion. Also used for
rustic stepping stones and patios.
to the heights of stone, generally used in reference
to veneer stone.
member between treads of a stair.
water that travels upward through a masonry wall by
means of natural capillary action.
along natural cleavage planes, describes surface finish.
part of the earth’s crust composed of an aggregate of
grains of one or more minerals (‘stone’ is the commercial
term applied to quarry products).
(PITCH) FACE: This
is similar to split face, except that the face of the
stone is pitched to a given line and plain, producing
a bold appearance rather than the comparatively straight
face obtained in split face.
edge that is spalted from both sides, leaving a bubbled
of a structurally unsound marble by cementing reinforcing
rods into grooves or channels cut into the back of the
arch with all stone pieces being wedge shaped.
circular stone window fitted with carved tracery.
surface finish accomplished by the gang sawing process.
cut-slab, having one side sawed and the other rough,
from a block that has been gang sawed.
preliminary stone cutting or carving process, removing
the bulk of unwanted material.
laid on its face with the end surface visible in the
wall face. Frequently spelled rolock.
rubbed for smoother finish; may have slight scratches.
term applied to dimension stone used for building purposes,
chiefly walls and foundations and consisting of irregularly
shaped pieces, partly trimmed or squared, generally
with one split or finished face, and selected and specified
within a site range.
stone that is used to smooth the edges of stone tile.
local stone, that is roughly hand dressed, and intentionally
laid with high relief in relatively modest structures
or rural character. Also, a grade of building limestone,
characterized by coarse texture.
joints, recessed or beveled, which are cut or formed
the margin of cut stone so that when placed together
a channel is formed at each joint.
strip of stone projecting above the floor between the
jambs of a door, such as a threshold.
unit laid on end to show its broadest face.
gloss finish obtained by a thermo-chemical reaction
between silicates of clay and vapors of salt or chemicals.
of dimensional stone, usually 12" x 12" showing a general
range of marking and color of a given variety.
COARSE STIPPLED: Coarse
plane surface produced by blasting with an abrasive;
coarseness varies with type of preparatory finish and
grain structure of the stone.
FINE STIPPLED: Plane
surface, slightly pebbled, with occasional slight scratches.
engraving, or surface finish process achieved by spraying
sand on the surface with compressed air.
matte textured surface finish with no gloss; finished
by application of a steady flow of sand and water under
pressure; suitable for exterior use.
occurring holes visible in some dimension stone; can
be filled or waxed.
RUBBED FINISH: Finish
obtained by rubbing stone with a sand and water mixture
under a rotating horizontal steel plate. This actual
process is now little used, and the finish so known
is commonly applied with a rotary or belt sander.
SAWN FINISH: The
surface left as the stone comes from the gang saw. Moderately
smooth, granular surface varying with the texture and
grade of stone.
rock consisting usually of quartz cemented with silica,
iron oxide or calcium carbonate. Sandstone is durable,
has a very high crushing and tensile strength and a
wide range of colors or textures.
clean cut edge generally achieved by cutting with a
diamond blade , gang saw or wire saw.
finish obtained from the process used in producing building
stone. Varies in texture from smooth to rough and coincident
with the type of materials used in sawing characterized
as diamond sawn; sand sawn; chat sawn; and shot sawn.
of a bridge saw, gang saw or wire saw.
dressed stone, with prominent toolmarks.
of removing surface irregularities for blocks for storage
chips of stone.
elevated structure for the support of plank footing
and platforms as aids to workmen.
used in imitation of ornamental marble, consisting of
ground gypsum and glue colored with marble or granite
dust; a small piece of marble.
lamina or paper-like sheets of rock often loose, and
interrupting an otherwise smooth, surface on stone.
of a material normally attached to another by surface
adherence, which then peels and breaks away.
of stone supporting the pedestal of a statue or the
plinth of a column; a surplus bevel of stone adjoining
a sharp edge, to prevent chipping when the cubic piece
is being set.
metamorphic rock (recrystallized) characterized by thin
foliae that are composed predominantly of minerals of
thin platy or prismatic habits and whose long dimensions
are oriented in approximately parallel positions along
the planes of foliation. Because of this foliated structure
schists split readily along these planes and so possess
a pronounced rock cleavage. The more common schistise
are composed of the micas and other mica-like minerals
(such as chlorite) and generally contain subordinate
quartz and/or feldspar or comparatively fine-grained
texture; all graduations exist between schist and gneiss
(coarse is foliated feldspathic rocks).
the surface of stone to make a better bond; to mark
on a stone piece for the purpose of a cutting layout.
masses of lava resembling clinker or slag; may be cellular
(vesicular) dark-colored and heavy.
first rough coat of portland cement mortar, which is
scored or roughed before completely set, allowing better
adhesion of subsequent coats.
of wood, metal, or other material applied to a surface.
Screeds are used as guides on which a straight edge
is used to obtain a true mortar surface.
the edge of one stone unit to be cut to fit snugly against
stone, an artist whose craft is to carve stone in three-dimensional
of a sculptor in three dimensional form by cutting from
a solid block of stone.
adhesive compound used to seal stone veneer joints.
Or, a resilient compound used as the final weatherface.
a veneer joint water-tight or leak-proof with an elastic
adhesive compound; or application of a surface treatment
to prevent staining, moisture penetration and reduce
bed face of a quarried stone.
made up of fitted hexagonal stones.
formed by precipitation from solution, as rock salt
and gypsum, or from secretion of organisms, as most
of three classes of rock which make up the earth’s outer
crust; formed from the disintegration of older rocks,
soils, plants, and animals.
of gypsum in transparent, foliated, crystalline form.
A finish achieved by rubbing hand or machine the rough
or high spots off the surface to be used leaving a certain
amount of the natural surface along with the smoothed
marble characterized by a prominent amount of the mineral
serpentine. Most commonly dark green in color, but may
be brownish-red. Or, a hydrous magnesium silicate matonal
of igneous origin, generally a very dark green color
with markings of white, light green, or black; one of
the hardest varieties of natural building stone.
in mortar consistency from a plastic to a hard state.
journeyman who installs dimensional stone units.
of installing dimensional stone units.
BED MORTAR: The
troweling of mortar to set building units, but with
the exposed joint raked out for the application of the
pointing mortar or grout to be done later.
referring to the distance from the finished face of
a stone unit to the face of the back-up material.
that has been subjected to high pressure until it has
of stress; a body is in shear when it is subjected to
a pair of equal forced which are opposite in direction
and which act along parallel planes.
steel angle usually connected to a spandrel beam which
supports brick veneer, typically at every floor level.
of plastic or other non-corrosive, non-staining material
used to hold joints to size.
laid on its edge to show its broadest face.
on the specified product use, the shop drawing is a
detailed fabrication and installation drawing showing
dimensions and methods of anchorage usually prepared
by the stone manufacturer.
of a finish obtained by using steel shot in the gang
sawing process to produce random markings for a rough
SAWN FINISH: A
rough gang saw finish produced by sawing with chilled
joints filled by shoving a unit against the next unit
when it is being laid in a bed of mortar.
on size of a material through cooling or drying.
refers to alkyltrialkoxysilanes. A monomeric organosilicon
compound with one unhydrolyzable bond, which forms a
chemical bond with siliceous minerals providing water
repellent protection to masonry substrates. Silicanes
are usually dissolved in organic solvents, but some
are dispersed in water. They are properly classified
is diluted with water and is, consequently noncombustible.
Silicate is a highly alkaline solution and is used mostly
as an admixture in mortars and cements to harden and
densify surfaces. A reactive material which comes from
CI stock. (Also see magnesium fluosilicate and sodium
ethers or orthosiliate esters of general structure (RO)4Si,
where R is an organic group in which all bonds are hydrolyzable.
An example is tetraethoxysilane or tetraethylorthosilicate
which is used in consolidative restoratives for stone,
as a base for high temperature zinc-rich paints and
as an additive to organsilicane and siloxide water repellents.
alkaline compound commonly referred to as water glass,
used in soaps, detergents, adhesives, waterproofing
mortars and cements.
modified alkali silicates. Siliconates are generally
applied in aqueous solution to harden and/or protect
masonry substrates. Although sometimes associated with
crust formation treatments, they are best classified
the organopolysiloxanes applied to masonry materials
for water repellency. Silicone water repellents are
generally highly polymerized resins applied in any of
several organic solvents. Application is accompanied
by chemical bonding to the substrate if silicate minerals
are present. The size and shape of the polymer of which
the resin is composed determines whether the silicone
treatment is classified as a film former or a penetrant.
stone used under windows, doors, and other masonry openings.
Or, a horizontal unit used at the base of an exterior
opening in a structure.
course set at window sill level, and commonly differentiated
from the wall by projecting, by finish, or by being
sill thickness, to continue the visual effect of the
refers to alkylalkoxysiloxanes that are oligimerous
(i.e. siloxane or low molecular weight with the polymer
consisting of two, three, or four monomers). As with
other silicones, application is accompanied by chemical
bonding to the substrate if silicate minerals are present.
Oligomerous siloxanes are properly classified as penetrants.
non-carbonate clastic rock compose of detrital grains
of quartz and silicate minerals of silt size. Siltstones
are rarely marketed as such but commonly are considered
as fine-grained quartz-based stones (sandstones). Siltstone
is texturally transitional between quartz-based stones
and shales (mudstones). Many bluestones and siliceous
flagstones fall within this category. The term is included
in these definitions chiefly to explain the relationship
of some siliceous flagstones to the quartz-based stone
artificial man-made product.
bush-hammered finish, similar to but coarser than 8-cut,
with markings not more than 1/8" apart.
stone, particularly at the eaves end of a gable; a kneeler.
inclined surface on which the arch joins the supporting
or timbers used as support and track in sliding quarry
blocks and heavy cubic pieces of stone; a platform upon
which dimension stone tile are temporarily stored.
cut of a large quarry block of stone. Or, a piece of
stone cut form the quarry block prior to fabrication.
metamorphic rock derived from clay and shales, which
possesses a cleavage that permits it to be split readily
into thin, smooth sheets.
of the effective height of a member to its effective
thickness or radius of gyration.
connection which permits vertical or horizontal movement
of the cladding with respect to the structural frame.
panels all finished on the same face and place side
by side forming a repetition of the same pattern in
stone sill set between the jambs.
joints filled, after units are laid, by throwing mortar
in with a trowel.
of the finish produced by planer machines plus the removal
of objectionable tool marks. Also known as "smooth planer
finish" and " smooth machine finish".
EDGE-QUARRY CUT or BROKEN EDGE: This
generally refers to a natural breaking of a stone either
by hand or machine. The break should be a right angles
to the top and bottom surface.
area where a chip has been dislodged.
of very small pieces off the top or bottom edge, or
a corner, of a dimension stone unit.
unit of normal face dimensions, having a nominal two-inch
variety of talc with a soapy or greasy feel, used for
hearths, washtubs, tabletops, curved ornaments, chemical
laboratories, etc… Known for its stain proof qualities.
piece directly above a plinth on which a sculpture,
statuary, bust or the like rests.
lower surface of any overhead component of a building
such as a lintel, vault, or cornice, or an arch or entablature.
products that have been fired at a low temperature ranges,
producing units of relatively high absorption’s and
low compressive strengths.
unit laid on end with its stretcher face showing on
the wall surface.
MASONRY UNIT: A
masonry whose net cross-sectional area in every plan
parallel to the bearing surface is 75 percent or more
of its cross-sectional area measured in the same plane.
matter in a coating composition (i.e. the ingredients
of a coating composition which, after drying, are left
behind and constitute the dry film). Solids are usually
measured as weight percent of the total.
which is used in the manufacture of paint or clear repellents
to dissolve or disperse film-forming constituents, and
which evaporates during drying and does not become a
part of the dried film. Solvents are used to control
the consistency and character of the finish and to regulate
of stone used to describe relative freedom from cracks,
faults, and similar imperfections in the untreated stone.
One of the characteristics encountered in fabrication.
Marble and limestone marble have been classified into
four groups: A, B, C, and D, to distinguish method and
amount of repair.
verb, it is to flake or split away through action of
the elements or pressure. As a noun, it is a chip or
flake so formed.
edge cut from one side of the stone, leaving an undercut
vertical face in an arcade bounded by the adjacent curves
of two arches and the horizontal tangent of their crowns.
Or, the vertical face on buildings supported by a skeleton
structure between the sill of one window and the top
(or lintel) of the window next below.
part of a stone wall above the top of a window in one
story and below the sill of the window in the story
or slanted surface, split division of rock by cleavage.
which is part of project documents or attached to a
contract, of the materials and workmanship required
in a structure, and which may have related drawings.
or slanted surface, inclined to another surface.
strip of material, such as wood or metal, inserted into
the edges of two stone pieces or stone tiles to make
a butt joint between them.
FACE SAWED BED: Usually
split face is sawed on the beds and is split either
by hand or by machine so that the surface face of the
stone exhibits the natural quarry texture.
FACE MACHINE: Device
that splits slabs of stone into usable thicknesses for
job-fabricated stone patterns. Generally hydraulic,
but may operate on impact. Blades are used to split
bullets from slabs for most limestones and sandstones,
but toothed bars may be used for harder stone, such
obtained by diamond sawing to accurate heights, then
breaking by machine to required bed widths.
OR SPOTTING: An
adhesive contact applied to the back of a dimensional
stone veneer unit to bridge the space between the unit
and the back-up wall thus helping to maintain the unit
in a fixed position. Plaster of paris is used on interior
vertical stone units and portland cement mortar on the
lying first above the base of an arch.
at the corner of a building to prevent traffic damage.
figure having four equal sides and four interior right
angles; also, edges or units that are at right angles
to each other.
stone that is cut to one dimensional size and installed
with unbroken vertical and horizontal joints running
the entire length and height of the veneered area.
platform working space in and around a building under
construction or repair.
of discoloration on newly installed limestone. Buff
limestone will exhibit a dark gray stain. This staining
is similar to efflorescence but it is the organic matter
in the stone which is leaching out through the release
of excess water of crystallization of the setting mortar.
of steps or flight of stairs, possibly with landings,
and with handrail, newels, etc. Also known as ‘stair’
of a human or animal figure.
in slab form, as for hearths, fireplace facings, etc…
or ester of stearic acid that functions as a water repellent
by forming a "soap" within the masonry pores. Stearates
are generally classified as film-formers, but can be
considered penetrants in modified forms.
of tread and riser.
term describing the butt edge repair of a broken piece
of stone, now generally done with dowels, cements, or
epoxies. The pieces are "stuck" together, thus the term
that is light and thin enough to adhere to wall surface
using chemical adhesives or mastics. The backs of these
stones are usually flattened and leveled. Thin building
stones are sometimes also called "stick-ons".
framing member of a paneled door or of stone partitions.
synonymous with rock, but more properly applied to individual
blocks, masses, o fragments taken form their original
formation or considered for commercial use.
craftsman skilled in constructing stone masonry. The
work of masons includes such preparation of stone as
is done on the job.
construction in stone; preparation or setting of stone
for building or paving.
stone, generally polished, used as an interior window
chamfer which curves or angles to become narrower until
it meets the aris.
produced by deposition of sediments in beds or layers
(strata), lamina, lenses, wedges, and other essentially
of stone placed lengthwise in a course.
with a trowel the excess mortar at the face of a joint.
Also known as "struck joint."
support of stair ends, or the stone covering the ends.
treatment at edge of stairs, inside and outside.
speaking, strip rubble comes from a ledge quarry. The
beds of the stone while uniformly straight, are of natural
cleft as the stone is removed form the ledge, and then
split by machine to approximately 4" widths.
pieces of stone usually low height ashlar courses where
length to height ratio is at maximum for the material
joint without mortar; an open joint.
joint from which excess mortar has been removed by a
stroke of the trowel.
vertical member of a frame.
and marble, generally a bedding plane, along with differential
solution of the material on each side has caused interpenetration
of points, cones, or columns, forming a contact surface
that is rough when separated. In cross section, the
stylolitic surface has the appearance of a jagged, zigzag
line of varying amplitude. The boundary may have a thin
zone of insoluble materials, as clay or iron oxide.
Some stylolites constitute a surface of weakness or
parting in the stone, but most are tightly annealed.
Sawing stone perpendicular to or at a high angle to
stylolites produces much if the "veined" stone of the
marble and limestone industries, and sawing at a very
low angle to stylolites causes some of the "flueri"
patterns. Stylolites may develop in sandstone or quartzite,
contracts to carry through a definite part of the general
contractor’s obligation in building.
upon which a finish floor is to be laid.
of soluble salts under or just beneath the masonry surface,
formed as moisture evaporates. Subfluorescence can damage
the substrate during wet/dry and freeze/thaw cycling.
is engaged in supplying auxiliary materials, products,
equipment and service to the industry.
plate, or stone which carries a gravity load.
rock containing little or no quartz.
flat slab or surface of stone especially one bearing
one or intended to bear an inscription, carving or the
mineral composed of hydrous magnesium silicate, major
ingredient of soapstone.
or pushed down to fill a space or make level.
and mix clay, plaster, or mortar to the proper consistency.
for repetitive marking or fabricating operation; made
from a hard, waterproof material.
fired clay, either glazed or unglazed, used primarily
in ornamental reliefs.
of concrete in which chips or pieces of stone, usually
marble, are mixed with cement and are ground to a flat
surface, exposing the chips which take a high polish.
dimensional surface enrichment independent of color;
any finish other than a smooth finish.
rough surface finish that tends to subdue color and
markings; obtained by bush hammering and machine chiseling.
measure of heat-flow through a material or substance.
rough non-reflective finish created with the use of
intense heat flaming to exfoliate the surface of the
stone and expose the actual grain. Large surfaces may
have shadow lines caused by overlapping of the machine
the tendency of a material to retard the flow of heat;
the reciprocal of the co-efficient of heat transmission.
mixture of portland cement with sand, and additives
that improve water retention, used as a thin mortar
for installing stone tile.
BED MORTAR: A
mortar setting bed over ½" and up to 4" thick. The minimum
required " thick bed thickness" is a function of application
usage, installed material, and the supporting substrate.
BED MORTAR: A
mortar setting bed up to ½" thick.
BUILDING STONE: Generally
stone with natural cleft front and back which is thin
and light enough to adhere to a surface which special
sticky mortar or " rich mud" has been applied. The pieces
are generally the same thickness as flagging but smaller
in surface area. The same item can also be used for
flagging, caps, hearth tops, etc….
units less than two inches thick.
LIMIT VALUE: Value
of airborne toxic materials that are to be used as guides
in control of health hazards and present time weighed
concentrations to which all workers may be eight hours
per day over extended periods of time without adverse
of a projected molding to form a drip.
laid across entire thickness of a wall.
of material that connects masonry to masonry or other
installed with a 1/32" joint.
unit less than 5/8" thick.
allowance made for the inability of men and machines
to fabricate a product of exact dimensions.
AND GROOVE: Applied
to boards or plywood having a tongue formed on one edge
and a groove on the other for tight jointing. Not recommended
for stone tile sub-floor.
stone, having regular tool marks.
are four, six, or eight parallel concave grooves to
and shaping the face of a mortar joint with a special
tool other than a trowel.
the temporary end of a wall with the end stretcher of
alternate courses projecting. Projecting units are toothers.
of panels, circular windows, window heads, etc… A curving
mullion of a stone window, as in Gothic architecture.
assumed section of one material having the same elastic
properties as the original section of two materials.
change from one distinct style to another distinct style
quality of certain marble varieties containing a crystal
structure capable of transmitting light.
member subdividing a window opening.
of limestone which is a precipitant from cave or spring
waters. Some varieties of travertine take a polish and
have been marketed as travertine marble.
variety of limestone regarded as a product of chemical
precipitation from hot springs. Travertine is cellular
with the cells usually concentrated in thin layers that
display a stalactitic structure. Some that take a polish
are sold as marble and may be classified as travertine
marble under the class of "commercial marble".
stone used as the top walking surface on steps.
used as decorative items only, such as sills, coping,
enframements, etc….with the facing of another material.
stone arch, usually a low rise arch, used for supporting
a fireplace hearth.
of irregularly shaped masonry units with mortar colored
to match the units followed by placement of fine stripes
of a contrasting colored mortar on top of the first
mortar. Also used, incorrectly, for repointing.
deposit from saturated limy waters.
volcanic ash; many varieties included.
special finish for marble, limestone marble and limestone
obtained by rotating pre-cut pieces in a mixer or other
container. This rounds the edges and arrises.
stone fabrication pieces with circular outline, as columns,
balusters, and some bases and capitals. Generally cut
on a lathe, although spheres and some other shapes may
be cut by hand.
flush with floor or tracks, capable of being rotated
stones under 400 pounds.
overall heat transmission coefficient. Expressed in
BTU per inch, per hour, per square foot, per degree
Fahrenheit of temperature difference from air to air
of a given building section. This is always the final
calculation used to determine insulation specifications.
of fabricated dimensional cubic or thin stone.
as to present an overhang part, as a drip mold.
proportioned combination of portland cement, sand and
additives used with or without a latex liquid to level
an uneven substrate and to provide a suitable stone
floor tile setting surface.
thin stone panel used as a privacy partition between
joint that has been shaped with a tool to form a "V."
material, usually in thin sheet form or combined with
a sheathing material, designed to prevent the passage
of moisture through a wall or floor with the aim of
avoiding condensation within the wall.
of water in partially dry solid from regions of high
concentrates to those of low concentrates.
seam, or narrow irregular body of mineral material different
from the surrounding formation.
to the marble industry, it is a cut perpendicular to
the natural bedding plane.
non-bearing load wythe of masonry used as a facing material.
stone used as a decorative facing material which is
not meant to be load bearing.
non-loadbearing stone wall securely anchored to the
used to allow air and moisture to escape to the outside
from the wall cavity.
commercial marble composed chiefly of massive serpentine
and capable of taking a high polish. It is commonly
veined with carbonate mineral, chiefly calcite and dolomite.
dressing of irregularity shaped sinkings, leaving worm-like
include products in which the unsaturated vinyl grouping
is involved. Vinyl resins include polyvinyl, acetate,
polyvinyl chloride, copolymers of these, the acrylic
methacrylic resins, the polystyrene resins, etc…
resulting when kiln temperatures are so high as to fuse
grains and close pores of a clay product, making the
the stones in an arch between the impost and keystone.
in rock; sometimes lines or filled with either amorphous
or crystalline material; common in calcareous rocks
such as marble or limestone.
veneer of stone less than full wall height.
horizontal member anchored to a masonry wall to which
other structural elements may be attached. Also called
supporting a vertical load in addition to its own
in which the inner and outer wythes are separated
by an air space but
tied together with metal ties.
in which the facing and backing are of different materials
together with bond stones to exert a common reaction
or Faced: A
wall in which a thin facing and the backing are of
but not bonded as to exert a common reaction under
wall that subdivides a building so as to prevent the
spread of fire and
that extends continuously from the foundation through
bonded hollow wall: A
hollow wall in which the facing and backing are tied
together with masonry units.
wall that supports no vertical load other than its
exterior non-loadbearing wall in skeleton frame construction,
supported at each story.
part of any wall entirely above the roof.
wall in which an ornamental effect is achieved by
using masonry units
with open spaces or laying units with open spaces
between them. Also called a pierced or perforated
wall that resists horizontal forces applied in the
plane of the wall.
wythe wall: A
wall of only one masonry unit in wall thickness.
bonder or metal piece which connects wythes of masonry
to each other or to other materials.
TIE, CAVITY: A
rigid, corrosion resistant metal tie which bond two
wythes of a cavity wall. It is usually steel, 3/16"
in diameter, and formed in a ‘Z’ shape or rectangle.
a condition experienced only in flagging or flagstone
materials; very common with flagstone materials that
are taken from the ground and used in their natural
state. To eliminate warping in stones it would be necessary
to further finish the material such as machining, sand
rubbing, honing, or polishing.
area or the area water will run over.
repellents and latex paint coatings containing water
soluble or water dispersible binders.
OF CRYSTALLIZATION: The
extra water required to assist in the crystallization
process when forming a hydrate (mortar, cement, concrete,
plaster, etc…) When the hydrate gives up this excess
water, at ambient temperatures, the result is a surface
deposit known as efflorescence or staining.
used to treat the surface of the substrate, preventing
liquid from entering, but allowing water vapor transmission,
of several types of clear liquids used to render masonry
wall less absorptive. These treatments are said to maintain
a material’s ability to breathe away moisture, as distinct
from "sealer" which form impervious, non-breathing coatings.
property of a mortar which prevents the rapid loss of
water to masonry units of high suction. It prevents
bleeding or water gain when mortar is in contact with
relatively impervious units.
continuous course of building units on the outside of
a wall, near the ground, with a horizontal projection
or ledge. It is often shaped with a slope and a drip
to limit the amount of water passing over the wall or
expression used in fabrication of interior marble to
describe the process of filling natural voids with cements,
shellac, or other materials.
removal of material, or impairment of the stone surface
finish, through friction or impact.
slope to the outside of the upper part of a joint to
alteration by either chemical or mechanical processes
due to the action of the atmosphere, surface waters,
soil and other ground waters, or to temperature changes.
Changes by weathering are not necessarily undesirable
wall connecting the face shells of a hollow masonry
of stone by driving wedges into planes of weakness.
opening for drainage in veneer joints or in the structural
components supporting the veneer.
of a coating to flow out, spread, or penetrate a substrate.
pigment used in paint and putty.
purchases dimensional stone in all forms for resale
to the trade.
warp in a semi-finished stone slab to be removed by
bottom section of a window frame and/or the bottom section
of an exterior masonry window opening.
narrow shelf fitted across the lower part on the inside
of a window opening.
sawing device consisting of one or more wire cables,
running over pulleys used to cut natural stone into
blocks and slabs by tension and fed slurry of an abrasive
and water cuts by abrasion.
method of cutting stone by passing a twisted, multi-strand
wire over the stone, and immersing the wire in a slurry
of abrasive material.
ability of a coating to cover all areas of the substrate
to which it is applied, including edges. Also, the effect
of an electrostatic charge upon a coating and the ability
of the coating to cover all exposed conductive areas.
wall, one stone or brick thick, that either faces a
back-up or is a back-up wall and secured to its neighboring
wythes by bond stone or grout; or forms either half
of a cavity wall, and is attached to the other half
by metal ties.
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